First of all, there is a slight disadvantage when it comes to physical aspects - women typically have more body fat and less muscle than men. Muscle burns more calories than fat (even at rest), and given that men have a greater muscle mass on average than women, they have a naturally higher metabolic rate. The higher the metabolism, the more calories will be burned daily.
It also affects women that they tend to stick to cardio workouts and shy away from weight lifting. Women are usually worried about bulking up, so they concentrate on lifting lighter weights and cardiovascular workouts, while men tend to have heavy lifting that boosts muscle composition and metabolic rate.
Women have a disadvantage in losing weight due to the lack of testosterone. Men have approximately seven to eight times more testosterone in their body and it promotes muscle growth. Not only do men naturally have more muscles to begin with, they can also build muscle easier than women thanks to testosterone and effectively increase their metabolic rate even higher.
Women also undergo various hormonal changes in different stages of life:
- Menstrual cycles
Changes in hormone levels during women’s menstrual cycles may affect both calorie intake and metabolism. Estrogen is the primary female sex hormone, and when its level is low, it contributes to increased abdominal and body fat.
Women tend to have more fat in their lower body, which is harder to shed. It gets harder during pregnancy as they gain more weight. It puts them at risk of keeping the excess weight later on.
As women age, they go through menopause as estrogen levels drop. They are prone to lose muscle mass and gain more fat around their midsections after menopause.
When it comes to mental health issues, it is more common for women to fall into it. Women are generally more emotional compared to men, and this may lead to them to be more prone to eat for emotional reasons, rather than hunger. They are more inclined to seek out sugary, salty and fatty foods that lead to weight gain.
Weight loss is also more difficult for people who are dealing with mental health issues, making them harder to focus.